Tethys Ocean

Geology of Israel

Tethys Ocean had played a mjor role in the Geology of Israel. The Tethys Sea is the name of an ocean which according to the Plate Tectonic Theory has existed in the past and separated the continents Laurasia in the north and Gondwana in the south. Moreover, these continents split from the ancient continent of Pangea in the Jurassic Period. This ancient ocean has almost disappeared over the years, due to the movement of the plates in the Earth’s crust and the nearing of Europe, Africa, and the Arabian Peninsula. Today the only remnant is the Mediterranean Sea.

The Ancient Sea Played An Important Role

Tethys Ocean played an essential role in the geology of the Land of Israel. Formerly, the Land of Israel has located in the depths of the Tethys Ocean. And after being exposed, the Sea swept the area, retreating and flooding the area several times in different eras. As a result, layers of sand and chalk formed above each other.

Plate Tectonics Theory In Israel

The Tethys Ocean and the land of Israel

These layered structures allow the formation of erosion craters such as the Negev Craters: Ramon Crater, the Small Crater, and the Large Crater. Evidence of the existence of the Land of Israel under Tethys Ocean is seen in the discovery of marine fossils in areas such as the Negev Desert, mainly in the craters. And in the Naftali Mountains, in the area of Manara Cliffs.


Hi! My name is Arik Haglili, an Israeli native who decided to dedicate his life to share my knowledge about the Holy Land to those that are interested to know more about this amazing piece of land. My career as a private tour guide started at the International School For the Studying of the Holocaust and the rest is history. 

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